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Dental caries in children: causes, stages and treatment

Caries is a tooth injury that can occur with a child even at the time of teething. As practice shows, up to seven years this dental disease is detected in 80% of patients. Unfortunately, this indicator is growing every year. This is due to the fact that the enamel of the child’s teeth is not yet fully formed and cannot fully resist microorganisms that destroy children’s teeth. Early caries develops very quickly and leads to unpleasant consequences if treatment is not started in advance. But many moms and dads continue to ignore this problem.

Tooth decay in children

Caries is the destruction of the tooth, which begins with the dissolution of the mineral substances that make up its composition, due to which cavities form, or, as we are used to call it, “holes”.

Despite the fact that we were convinced that the main cause of caries is sweet, this is not entirely true. The main factor causing caries is microorganisms. These bacteria form acids on the enamel of the tooth acid, which lead to the “leaching” of minerals.

Caries in children: causes
In order to begin effective treatment, it is necessary to establish the cause that caused the decay. The main factor provoking this disease is weakened tooth enamel. Because of this, it cannot interfere with the aggressive environment that microorganisms form. Here are some reasons that weaken tooth enamel and may be indirect factors in the formation of dental caries.

Genetic predisposition
It is an indirect factor that causes tooth decay. If mom or dad has tooth problems, then this can cause dental problems in their child.

Pregnancy problems
Severe toxicosis during the first trimester, malnutrition, lack of vitamins and minerals – all this can cause a lack of nutrients in the development of the fetus. Complications after viral, infectious diseases, taking medications, including antibiotics, smoking and alcohol stimulate caries in infants at an early age.

Diseases in a child
The body of a baby up to 1 year old is extremely vulnerable. A common cold can reduce immunity, which will also leave an imprint on the tissues of the teeth. And gastrointestinal diseases can change the composition of saliva, which can cause dental plaque growth.

Malnutrition
If the child’s diet does not contain food containing calcium, fluorides and minerals, this can cause tooth enamel to weaken. Sweet soda, chocolate and other goodies, which everyone considers to be the main culprit of caries, are not the main factors of its occurrence. However, bacteria that cause caries develop due to easily fermentable carbohydrates.

Hygiene
Lack of hygiene or non-compliance is a common cause of tooth decay. Many parents are convinced that there is no need to immediately brush their teeth as soon as the first teeth erupted. But on the contrary, in the early years, children’s teeth are more prone to the influence of an aggressive external environment. For this reason, if you do not carry out regular hygiene procedures, caries will not take long.

Stages of caries in a child
Elementary
During this period, caries is almost invisible. However, you can see a small bright spot on the tooth enamel.

Surface
White spots transform into yellowish, barely noticeable patterns that differ in size and shape. At this time, the child is not discomfort. Over time, these spots darken, turning into brown and black formations.

Average
During this period, the child may experience pain during contact of the tooth with hot or cold food or drinks. In the “holes” leftovers of food are delayed, accompanied by an unpleasant odor.

Deep
The extreme stage in which the lesion reaches all the tissues of the tooth.

Treatment of caries in young children

Children under three years of age are extremely sensitive to going to the doctor. Therefore, we take an individual approach to children of different ages.

In total, there are two ways to treat caries today – with and without a drill.

How to treat a child’s teeth in the early stages of caries?
Fluoridation
We strengthen and restore the enamel, saturating its weak areas with useful minerals. The doctor treats all teeth with a special solution that contains substances such as fluorine, phosphorus, calcium and other trace elements. This method allows you to stop its development at an early stage of caries, and is also a good prevention of this disease.

Ozone therapy
This painless method allows you to destroy the pathogenic microflora on the teeth. It is suitable for children of any age. After treatment with ozone, the development of caries stops.

Fissure Sealing
In this procedure, the chewing surface of the teeth is “sealed” with sealant.

Treatment of decay of deciduous teeth with a drill
Alas, there are situations when you cannot do without a drill, which both children and adults are afraid of. When the disease has reached a medium or deep stage, it can be treated only by filling. If caries has reached the area of ​​proximity with the nerve of the milk tooth.

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