Diabetes and health: the most common diabetes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a very serious disease. Violation of carbohydrate metabolism (namely, this is diabetes) has a negative effect on the whole body. That is why people suffering from this pathology are especially vulnerable to various diseases.
What are the main diseases of diabetics?
This is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Heart attacks and strokes, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis – all these diseases are more common in diabetics than in people with undisturbed carbohydrate metabolism
The thing is that blood vessels in diabetes are affected due to impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The content of “bad” cholesterol in the blood rises. Narrowed vessels are clogged with cholesterol plaques, which leads to malnutrition of the heart muscle and a risk of heart attack, necrosis of the brain and ischemic stroke. The likelihood of myocardial infarction in diabetics increases by 8-10 times, stroke – 6 times.
Diabetic Foot Disease
Violation of carbohydrate metabolism leads to damage to all vessels, including the vessels of the legs. And since the legs are experiencing increased stress, then they suffer more.
Differences in blood sugar destroy the vessels of the lower extremities, their permeability decreases. Liquid builds up in the walls of the vessels, and the legs swell and hurt. The lumen of the vessels narrows, blood clots form in them. Tissues do not receive enough nutrition, suffer from a lack of oxygen. Narrowing can lead to a complete cessation of blood circulation in the vessel.
Diabetic angiopathy is manifested by numbness of the legs, cramps, pain, especially when walking.
Another diabetic foot disease is impaired transmission of nerve impulses from the legs to the brain. This complication is characterized by the fact that the patient’s sensitivity to the legs is lost. He can injure or burn them, get a dislocation or a fracture and not feel anything, since there will be no pain signal.
In diabetes, the patient may not feel pain in the legs.
This condition is dangerous by the development of ulcers and wounds on the legs that go unnoticed. The result may be tissue necrosis. This set of symptoms is called diabetic foot.
Sensomotor neuropathy is also manifested by strong and sharp (dagger) pain in the legs, often this happens at night, and a person wakes up from unbearable pain.
Pain in the legs limits a person’s movements, which causes atrophy of muscle tissue.
Diabetics also suffer from arthrosis, which is characterized by proliferation of bone tissue. The foot is deformed, dislocations and bone fractures occur.
Visual Impairment – Diabetic Retinopathy
This late complication of diabetes is associated with damage to the retinal vessels. It manifests itself in the initial stages of a slight visual impairment; then spots and veil appear before the eyes. In the future, visual acuity sharply worsens and often complete blindness occurs.
The insidiousness of the disease is that at first it develops almost imperceptibly and painlessly.
This damage to the renal vessels — the renal glomeruli — is a late complication of diabetes. The disease develops slowly, without first showing any symptoms. Then there is lethargy, weakness, an ugly taste in the mouth, and frequent urination. Pronounced signs appear 15 years later and from the onset of the disease – swelling, high blood pressure, signs of intoxication.
Rapid urination, as one of the symptoms of pathology
At this stage, the changes become irreversible, renal failure occurs.
Diabetes and Infectious Diseases
With diabetes, the immune system does not work well, therefore, diabetics are easy prey for a variety of pathogenic microorganisms – viruses, bacteria, fungi – infections they occur one and a half times more often than in people with undisturbed metabolism. They leak harder and last longer.
The situation is complicated by the fact that antibiotics in diabetics work worse.
Diabetes pneumonia can develop into bacteremia – the pathogen enters the bloodstream. And this is already deadly.
There are diseases that are mainly inherent in diabetics: malignant otitis media, emphysematous cystitis and cholecystitis.
A common infection in diabetes is fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes.
Fungi affect the groin, genitals, the armpits, the oral cavity and even the esophagus.
The danger of infectious diseases in patients with diabetes is also that with the disease there is a destabilization of diabetes.
Diabetes and gastrointestinal diseases
Diabetes mellitus can also manifest itself as a violation of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Most often this is associated with disorders in the nervous system – with neuropathy.
Gastroparesis – a slowdown (or cessation) of food from the stomach to the intestines – is most common in diabetics. Gastroparesis is manifested by such unpleasant symptoms as heaviness in the stomach even with small portions of food eaten, fullness, nausea and vomiting.